The Role of Nano-Sensors in Breath Analysis for Early and Non-Invasive Disease Diagnosis

N. Lagopati, Th.-F. Valamvanos, V. Proutsou, K. Karachalios, N. Pippa, M.-A. Gatou, I.-A. Vagena, S. Cela, E.A. Pavlatou, M. Gazouli, E. Efstathopoulos

Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 317

Early-stage, precise disease diagnosis and treatment has been a crucial topic of scientific discussion since time immemorial. When these factors are combined with experience and scientific knowledge, they can benefit not only the patient, but also, by extension, the entire health system. The development of rapidly growing novel technologies allows for accurate diagnosis and treatment of disease. Nanomedicine can contribute to exhaled breath analysis (EBA) for disease diagnosis, providing nanomaterials and improving sensing performance and detection sensitivity. Through EBA, gas-based nano-sensors might be applied for the detection of various essential diseases, since some of their metabolic products are detectable and measurable in the exhaled breath. The design and development of innovative nanomaterial-based sensor devices for the detection of specific biomarkers in breath samples has emerged as a promising research field for the non-invasive accurate diagnosis of several diseases. EBA would be an inexpensive and widely available commercial tool that could also be used as a disease self-test kit. Thus, it could guide patients to the proper specialty, bypassing those expensive tests, resulting, hence, in earlier diagnosis, treatment, and thus a better quality of life. In this review, some of the most prevalent types of sensors used in breath-sample analysis are presented in parallel with the common diseases that might be diagnosed through EBA, highlighting the impact of incorporating new technological achievements in the clinical routine.

doi: 10.3390/chemosensors11060317

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